奶粉中需要添加DHA和AA吗?Comments>>

发表于 2013-03-05 16:50 | Tags 标签:, , ,

近年来,年轻的父母们越来越关注自己宝宝的健康和发育,竭尽全力让宝宝吃最好的奶粉,用最好的东西,生怕孩子“输在起跑线上”。婴幼儿配方奶粉这块香饽饽自然不会被精明的商人放过,因此近些年市场上和网络上各种奶粉品牌的广告大战越演越烈。各品牌都努力标榜自己产品的安全优质,以及能让宝宝更聪明。

在这些广告中,最常听到的就是说本产品添加了DHA和AA,说的仿佛吃了含有DHA和AA的奶粉就会变神童一样,以至于让很多人误以为添加了这两种成分的奶粉比母乳都要好。那么,奶粉中添加DHA和AA到底是什么呢?

什么是DHA和AA?

DHA其实是二十二碳六烯酸(docosahexaenioc acid)的缩写,还有个很俗的俗称,叫脑黄金。而AA(也常被写作ARA)则是花生四烯酸(arachidonic acid)的缩写,二者都属于长链不饱和脂肪酸,它们在大脑皮层细胞和视网膜细胞的细胞膜中含量都很高。

许多研究表明,食用添加了DHA和AA的奶粉的婴儿可以在“解决问题测试”中获得更高的分数,婴儿的视力敏锐性也得到了提高,而且婴儿血液中的脂肪酸成分也更接近母乳喂养的婴儿。[1,2,3]而那些用不含DHA和AA的奶粉喂养的婴儿血红细胞膜中DHA和AA的含量要低于母乳喂养的婴儿[4]。

如何获得DHA和AA?

其实,我们的身体都可以利用亚麻酸和α亚麻酸来合成DHA和AA,而合成它们的原料也存在于所有婴儿奶粉中。只不过婴儿的这种合成功能比较低下,所以就需要额外摄入它们。

事实上,母乳中已经含有了这两种物质,而且其中10-20%是以磷脂的形式存在的,更易于吸收。所以如果有条件的话,还是母乳喂养最好,正应了那句话,世上只有妈妈好啊。当然,如果不能母乳喂养,那只好选择婴儿奶粉作为替代品了。

早在1996年,国外就已经有添加了DHA的婴儿奶粉了,而许多机构(英国营养基金会,WHO,FAO,国际脂肪酸和脂类研究学会)都建议应当在婴儿奶粉中添加DHA和AA。目前,国内很多奶粉也已经添加了这两种物质。[5]

对于儿童和成人来说,DHA和AA完全可以从食物中获得,蛋黄,深海鱼类和海藻通常含有丰富的DHA和AA,只要合理搭配膳食,就完全无需担心。

那么DHA和AA的含量是越多越好吗?

既然DHA和AA这么好,那是不是应该给婴儿补充越多越好?当然不是。摄入过量的DHA和AA除了会增加婴儿的消化负担,太多DHA还会导致婴儿免疫应答反应和炎症反应降低(也就是说,更容易被病原体入侵),以及凝血困难等等不良后果。

目前中国国家标准对DHA和AA的规定是:对于婴儿配方食品,DHA和AA都属于可选择性成分,最大添加量分别不超过总脂肪酸含量的0.5%和1%,而且如果添加了DHA,必须至少添加等量的AA。[6](欧盟对于婴儿配方食品的规定跟国标略有差别,仅限定了AA最大不超过脂肪酸总量的1%且DHA含量不得高于AA含量。)

由于中国新国标已于2011年4月1日正式实施,所以消费者在选购婴儿奶粉时可以注意DHA和AA的含量是否符合了国家标准。

最后再次强调,母乳喂养是最适合婴儿的,再贵的奶粉都是在尽力模仿母乳成分。

参考资料

[1] Willatts P, Forsyth JS, DiModugno MK, Varma S, Colvin M. Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formula on problem solving at 10 months of age. Lancet 1998;352(9129):688–91

[2] SanGiovanni JP, Parra-Cabrera S, Colditz GA, Berkey CS, Dwyer JT. Meta-analysis of dietary ssential fatty acids and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as they relate to visual resolution acuity in healthy preterm infants. Pediatrics 2000;105(6):1292–8.

[3] Makrides M, Neumann MA, Simmer K, Gibson RA. A critical appraisal of the role of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on neural indices of term infants: a randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics 2000;105(1 Part 1):32–8.

[4] Koletzko B, Rodriguez-Palmero M. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and their role in early infant development. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 1999; 4(3):269–84.

[5]Allison L. Morrow, What’s new in infant formulas ? J. Pediatr. Health Care, 2003. 17, 271-272.

[6] GB 10765-2010 食品安全国家标准 婴儿配方食品

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13 Responses to “奶粉中需要添加DHA和AA吗?”

  1. lifecorner说道:

    孕期的营养更重要,应该是排在第一位的。这样理解没问题吧?

  2. lifecorner说道:

    刚才去查了下销量较大奶粉的配方表。选的是3段,1-3岁的,选了4个牌子。4个都含有DHA,其中2个没有AA,1个AA含量远低于DHA,1个AA含量高于DHA。这4个牌子DHA和AA只有1个符合我国标准,这是怎么回事?如果不符合我国标准不可能会上架销售啊。

    • Index说道:

    • 少个螺丝说道:

      婴儿配方食品指的是6个月以内的,也就是1段。你提到的3段奶粉对应的是《较大婴儿和幼儿配方食品》标准,而该标准并未对DHA和AA的比例做要求。

  3. siyans说道:

    母乳一般不会超过1岁。1岁之后如果有鲜牛奶还有必要吃配方奶粉么?
    身边很多朋友孩子都两岁了还为香港奶粉限令头疼不已。

    • lifecorner说道:

      买香港奶粉纯属犯二自找,怨不得香港人啊。

    • alal说道:

      液态奶,国内真心没有放心的奶源。

      就算没有三聚氰胺,牧场的农药 受污染的水草 奶牛所打的抗生素吃的各种药 以及可能被污染的干饲料啊。。。

      奶粉最起码,进口奶源我觉得比国内还是放心一点

  4. xx说道:

    中國產的奶粉能喝?

  5. 郑之用说道:

    现在社会上大肆宣传“酵素”,其健身防治病功能神乎其神,哪位能从科学角度阐述一下?万分感谢!

  6. omega说道:

    生产人工合成DHA/ARA的马泰克生物科学公司(Martek Biosciences Corporation)用己烷从实验室培养的发酵藻类和真菌中提取这些脂肪,而己烷是已经证实的具有神经毒性的化学物质。环保局(EPA)认定己烷是有危险的空气污染物,与那些能够引发癌症和其他严重健康问题的严重毒性物质同属一类。

    在美亚看见的
    Parents, before buying this stuff, do quick Google search for The Cornucopia Institute's report entitled "Replacing Mother - Imitating Human Breast Milk in the Laboratory" or follow this link: [...]

    This Happy Bellies rice cereal contains Martek Corporation's laboratory-produced oils containing DHA and ARA. As we all know by now, DHA and ARA are considered important nutrients for rapidly developing infants. But laboratory-produced DHASCO and ARASCO (Martek's names for their proprietary oils) are materially different from the fats found in a mother's breast milk. Martek's products are extracted from fermented algae and fungus, with the use of the synthetic solvent hexane, a neurotoxic chemical. They contain only 40 to 50% DHA and ARA, with the balance being sunflower oil, diglycerides, and nonsaponifiable materials.

    These components are not found in human breast milk, and the triglycerides carrying DHA and ARA are not identical to
    those found in human breast milk, and have never been part of the diet for human infants. Most frighteningly, neurotoxic chemicals -- which are NOT organic in any way -- are used to manufacture these oils. These oils are not organic, are not regulated or approved by the USDA or FDA, and are added in violation of federal organic regulation.

    The authors of the report investigated how a toxic chemical is used as processing agents in the manufacturing process, the inadequate testing for safety, and most importantly, how some infants are experiencing serious adverse reactions from consuming formula and foods supplemented with these oils.

    "This report presents a disturbing look at the addition of novel ingredients into infant formula," says Marsha Walker, Executive Director of the National Alliance for Breastfeeding Advocacy. "The FDA has received scores of reports on the adverse effects of these ingredients, but, to date, the public's only access to these is through Cornucopia's Freedom of Information Act request. This report will help alert the health care community and federal agencies to some of the adverse effects of added DHA and ARA in infant formulas."

    The full report can be viewed on The Cornucopia Institute's web page. [...]

  7. 残月说道:

    鄙视产假的商家!

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